April 12, 2011
(HealthDay News) -- Diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related disease activity appear to increase the likelihood of developing depression in SLE, according to a study published in the April issue of Arthritis Care & Research.
Laura J. Julian, Ph.D., from the University of California in San Francisco, and colleagues analyzed the role of cardiovascular and SLE-specific disease-related factors as predictors of longitudinal development of depression in the prospective Lupus Outcomes Study (LOS). A standardized telephone interview was conducted annually to collect data from 663 adult participants between 2004 and 2008. The development of depressive symptom severity over a 12-month period was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score of 23 or more). Predictors included sociodemographic characteristics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and history of cardiovascular events), and SLE-specific risk factors (renal involvement, glucocorticoid use, disease duration, and disease activity).